“Broadly speaking, the social sciences are a range of academic disciplines that studies human society and human individuals in the context of society. Long established fields such as sociology, economics, anthropology, psychology, and political science no doubt first come to mind when thinking about the social sciences. But disciplines such as education, law, linguistics, geography, gender studies, communications, archeology, and even business school fields such as management, marketing, and human resources can all potentially be categorized as falling under the broad net of social science. While this diversity of specialized fields can be an obstacle when it comes to generalizing about its nature, this diversity is both a strength and a reflection of the complexities of its domain of study. This is a point that needs to be reiterated. One of the key insights (and values) of the social science of the past half century is its embrace of complexity. That is, methodological and theoretical pluralism is what defin”
“Over the past 100 years, social science has generated a tremendous number of theories on the topics of individual and collective human behaviour. However, it has been much less successful at reconciling the innumerable inconsistencies and contradictions among these competing explanations. — Duncan Watts CSS Lab Founder”
“Computational social science is a burgeoning field of research that uses analysis of huge data sets to tackle social questions. Digital devices now give real-time access to a wealth of information on our movements, purchases and social interactions online — information that offers unprecedented power to track trends, make predictions and inform decisions. In a special issue this week, Nature probes the possibilities of — and challenges faced by — this growing field. From modelling the dynamics of infectious disease to assessing potential bias in data sets, researchers face huge opportunities to answer key societal questions — as long as they can also maintain the delicate balance of ensuring the quality and privacy of the data being used.”
Source : Volume 595 Issue 7866, 8 July 2021
“AlphaStar is the first agent to achieve Grandmaster level in StarCraft II, and the first to reach the highest league of human players in a widespread professional esport without simplification of the game. Like StarCraft, real-world domains such as personal assistants, self-driving cars, or robotics require real-time decisions, over combinatorial or structured action spaces, given imperfectly observed information. Furthermore, similar to StarCraft, many applications have complex strategy spaces that contain cycles or hard exploration landscapes, and agents may encounter unexpected strategies or complex edge cases when deployed in the real world. The success of AlphaStar in StarCraft II suggests that general-purpose machine learning algorithms may have a substantial effect on complex real-world problems.”
“From finding a spouse to finding a parking spot, from organizing one’s inbox to understanding the workings of human memory, Algorithms to Live By transforms the wisdom of computer science into strategies for human living.”
« Computational science in 2019 », via Nicolas Nova !!!
Source : Brian Christian and Tom Griffiths
«“Les sciences sociales sont les véritables sciences ‘dures’ !“ Cette phrase résume le ton et le propos d’un livre très original et stimulant. Son auteur, Pablo Jensen, est un ancien physicien, passé aux sciences sociales (versant plutôt économique) avec, avoue-t-il, la naïveté de penser qu’il pourrait, grâce aux maths notamment, modéliser et mettre en équations les systèmes sociaux aussi facilement qu’on prédit qu’un système solide devient liquide à telle température. Le livre raconte la difficulté de réaliser une telle ambition».
Source : La délicate mise en équation de l’homme – via Nicolas Nova